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Historic PPH programme strengthens Indo-Japanese relations

Vikrant Rana of SS Rana analyses Japan and India’s close relationship in the field of IP, examining the Patent Prosecution Highway programme, the countries’ digital partnership and the establishment of a start-up hub

India-Japan relations

Indo-Japan relations started with the introduction of Buddhism from India into Japan in the sixth century. After World War II, in 1949, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru donated an Indian elephant to the Ueno Zoo in Tokyo. Japan and India signed a peace treaty and established diplomatic relations on April 28 1952. This treaty was one of the first peace treaties Japan signed after World War II ( data.html). Since then both India and Japan have nurtured their relationship and retained strong support for each other strengthening each other's position in the global community. In recent times, under the diplomatic leadership of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Japanese Prime Minister Abe Shinzō, Japan and India have continued to strengthen ties, cognisant of their growing importance to one another ( a06701/).

India's IP Regime

India's IP regime aims to meet the requirements of a constantly changing IP landscape and aspires to create a culture of transparency, accountability and efficiency in its management of IP. It endeavours to establish a vibrant and balanced IP regime in the country to support the nation's innovation and developmental objectives.

India IP Annual Report 2017-18

On July 17 2019, the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (hereinafter referred to as the office), released its Annual Report for the year 2017-18. The office has shown consistent growth over the years. This year, overall filing of applications for various IP rights (3,50,546) has been practically the same as the previous year (3,50,467). A pattern of increase has been recorded for patent, design, geographical indications and copyright filings. In the area of trademarks there has been a slight decrease when contrasted with 2016-17. The trends of the last five years with respect to filing of IP applications are shown below:


A total of 47,854 patent applications were filed exhibiting an increase of 5.3% in filing in comparison with the previous year. Domestic filings of patents applications in 2017-18 have also increased to 32.5% as compared to 29.2% in 2016-17.


A total of 2,72,974 applications for trademark registration were filed at all five locations of the Trademarks Registry. The number of applications examined was more than applications filed during the period. The duration of examination has been brought down to under a month. The number of trademark registrations showed an increase of 20.3% and final disposal of applications, which includes registered, refused, withdrawn and abandoned applications was 91.4% more in comparison with 2016-17.


A total of 11,837 design applications were filed showing a 15.9% increase over the last year. The number of design applications examined was 11,850 which showed a slight dip of 0.75%. The number of design registrations increased by 21.07% and disposal of design applications increased by 29.48% in 2017-18 compared to 2016-17.


A total of 17,841 applications were received during 2017-18 and 34,388 applications were examined. The number of copyright registrations was 19,997. During the year, 29,309 new discrepant letters were issued and the total number of applications disposed of was 39,799 (includes 8,642 applications for which work was not received).

IP filings by Japanese businesses in India

Japan's contribution to boosting India's IP sphere is reflected in the latest IP Annual Report.

  • Patents: Japan was the amongst the top five PCT national phase application filing countries. It was the second largest filer with 3,537 applications, right after the US (8,619). Additionally, two Japanese business entities, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation with 176 and Honda Motor with 110 applications, are among the top 10 foreign resident applicants.
  • Trademarks: Japan is among the top 10 international trademark filers in India. As per the report, out of a total of 272,974 applications filed, the number of applications filed by foreign applicants during the year was 25,307. Out of the total applications filed, the US filed 3,779, China 1,794, the United Kingdom 613 and Japan 608.
  • Design: In the sector of registered designs originating from abroad, Japan is the third largest filer with 433 applications and Honda Motor (50) and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (41) are among the leading foreign companies that filed applications. Further, it is also ranked as number two with 460 registrations.

Strategic IP cooperation between India and Japan – the Patent Prosecution Highway

In 2015, a Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) was signed between India and Japan in order to further investment and business expansion from Japan's industrial sector in India. This is believed to have the incredible potential to become one of the leading markets in the world and a hub for innovation, research and development ( /india/patent/753368/japan-india-vowing-to-grow-together-in-the-field-of-ip). Further, recognising the close cooperation on IP rights between the IP offices of the two countries, the two leaders concurred to start a bilateral Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) programme on a pilot basis in certain identified fields of inventions in the first quarter of FY 2019 (

Significant growth has been witnessed in number of patent applications received by patent offices across the world. One of the major catalysts in this growth is globalisation in sectors like e-commerce, technology, education etc. The same patents being filed in multiple countries have forced patent offices to come together and work in cooperation with each other. A large number of pending patents and a bid to increase productivity have encouraged patent offices to work together by opting for the avenue of a PPH.

Union Cabinet's approval – November 20 2019

The Union Cabinet on November 20 2019 approved the proposal for the adoption of the PPH programme by the Indian Patent Office (IPO) in collaboration with the patent offices of various other countries and regions. India's PPH programme first commenced with the Japan Patent Office (JPO) and IPO for an initial period of three years. Procedural guidelines were issued addressing the procedures that need to be followed by applicants who request expedited examination through the PPH programme between the IPO and JPO. The bilateral PPH pilot programme consists of normal PPH and PPH MOTTINA ( india/patent/875804/an-overview-of-procedure-guidelines-for-patent-prosecution-highway). The IPO released the official procedure guidelines for the PPH pilot programme between the IPO and JPO, which are available here.

The IPO has started accepting Form 5-1 under Chapter 5 of the PPH Guidelines again since March 9 2020

As per an update posted on the official website of the IPO (, the filing of Form 5-1 (information about PPH) at the IPO (IPO as Office of Later Examination (OLE), JPO as Office of Early Examination (OEE)) under Chapter 5 of the PPH Guidelines commenced on December 5 2019. After scrutinising 100 requests received, 56 requests were accepted by the IPO, and applicants were allowed to file a request for expedited examination on Form 18A. However, there were 44 requests that were found not eligible as per the PPH Guidelines. The IPO again started accepting Form 5-1 under Chapter 5 of the PPH Guidelines from March 9 2020. It is pertinent to mention here that the number of requests was limited to 44.

The IPO once again opened its doors for accepting Form 5-1 under Chapter 5 of the PPH Guidelines from August 10 2020

As per the latest update ( on the same, after scrutiny of 44 requests received in the second round, 35 requests were accepted by the IPO as per the guidelines and applicants were allowed to file a request for expedited examination on Form 18A. This time since nine request slots are still available as per the PPH Guidelines, the IPO will again start accepting Form 5-1 under Chapter 5 of the PPH Guidelines from August 10 2020.

Application 2013-142014-152015-162016-172017-18
Patent 42,95142,76346,90445,44447,854
Design 8,5339,32711,10810,21311,837
Trademark 2,00,0052,10,5012,83,0602,78,1702,72,974
Geographical Indication 7547143238
Copyrights No dataNo dataNo data16,61717,841
Total 2,51,5642,62,6383,55,8983,50,4673,50,546

India-Japan Digital Partnership (IJDP) and start-up hub*

Both the Indian and Japanese governments have also established initiatives to strengthen the economic collaboration between the nations as well as to create suitable opportunities for investment.

Apart from the PPH, India and Japan are also working together fuelling and strengthening Indian start-ups as well. An India-Japan Digital Partnership (I-JDP) was launched during the visit of PM Modi to Japan in October 2018, furthering existing areas of cooperation as well as new initiatives within the scope of cooperation in science and technology and ICT, focusing more on digital ICT technologies. This incorporated setting up a start-up hub between India and Japan.

As part of that, during Minister Seko's visit to India in May 2018, a joint statement on a Japan-India start-up initiative was signed. Under this, the first start-up hub was established in Bangalore by the Japan External Trade Organisation (JETRO) to identify selected Indian start-ups for the Japanese market and for potential Japanese investors. Thereafter, Startup-India (under Invest India) and Japan Innovation Network (JIN) signed a Memorandum of Understanding on innovation collaboration with a focus on SDGs (sustainable development goals) connecting two start-up ecosystems in June 2018. Invest India also launched an online portal for the start-up hub.

Both countries hope that the introduction of the PPH will reduce the time for disposing of patent applications, decrease their pendency and improve the quality of search and examination of patent applications ( The results of the PPH will be carefully watched to understand fully the genuine capability of an Indo-Japan IP partnership for a prosperous future.




印日関係は、6世紀の日本への仏教の普及から始まりました。1949年の第二次世界大戦後、インドのJawaharlal Nehru首相は東京の上野公園にインド象を一頭寄贈しています。1952年4月28日に両国は平和条約を締結して国交を開始します。この条約は第二次世界大戦後に日本が締結した最初の平和条約の一つです。 以来両国は互いに対する強固なサポートを育んで維持し、グローバルコミュニティにおける互いの立場を強化してきました。最近ではインドのNarendra Modi首相と日本の安倍晋三首相の主導の下、両国はそのつながりを強化し、 互いの重要性を認識しています。



2017~2018年 インドの知的財産年次報告書


特許: 合計47,854件の特許出願があり、出願件数は前年と比較して5.3%増加。2017~2018年の国内の特許出願も、2016~2017年の29.2%と比較して32.5%増加しました。

商標: 全5か所の商標登録局で合計2,72,974件の商標登録が出願されました。この期間中は出願件数を上回る件数が審査され、審査の係属は1 か月以下に減少しているのに対し、商標登録出願件数は20.3%増加し、登録・却下・取り下げ・放棄された出願を含む最終処分は2016~2017年と比較して91.4%増えています。

意匠: 前年比15.9%アップの合計11,837件の意匠登録出願がありました。意匠登録申請の審査数は11,850件で、2017~2018年は2016~2017年と比較して0.75%とわずかに上昇。これに対して意匠登録件数は21.07%、意匠登録出願の処分は29.48%上昇しています。

著作権: 2017~2018年の期間中、合計17,841件の出願があり、 34,388件が審査されたのに対し、著作権(ROC)の登録件数は19,997でした。同年29,309件の新規相違レターが発行され、合計39,799件の出願が処理されました(著作品未受領の8,642件を含む)。



• 特許: 日本は、PCT(特許協力条約)国内段階出願を申請している上位5カ国のうちの一つです。日本はアメリカ(8,619件)に近づく第2位の申請国で、3,537件出願しています。さらに、176件の三菱電機株式会社と、110件の本田技研工業株式会社の2社の日本企業は、上位10社の外国籍出願企業に名を連ねています。

• 商標: 日本はインドで国際商標登録のトップ10の申請者に含まれています。本報告書によると、272,974件の出願のうち、同年の外国申請者による出願数は25,307件でした。この合計出願数のうち、アメリカが3,779件、中国が1,794件、イギリスが613件、そして日本が608件出願しています。

• 意匠: 海外で発生した登録意匠の分野では、433件の日本は3番目に大きな申請者で、そのうち本田技研工業株式会社(50件)と三菱電機株式会社(41件)が主な外国企業となっています。さらに登録件数460と、2位にランクインしています。

印日間の戦略的知的財産協力 – 特許審査ハイウェイ

インドにおける日本の投資と事業拡大を推し進めるために2015年に日印間で協力覚書(MOC)が締結され、これは世界有数の市場、そしてイノベーション・研究・開発のハブとなる可能性があると考えられています。 さらに、両国の知的財産官庁間の知的財産権における緊密な協力を認識し、両国首相は2019会計年度第一四半期に、特定分野における試験的ベースでの二国間特許審査ハイウェイプログラムも同時に開始しました。




2019年11月20日にインドの内閣閣僚会議が、インドの特許総局(以下「IPO」と呼びます)による、さまざまな国と地域の特許当局と協力した、特許審査ハイウェイ(以下「PPH」と呼びます)プログラム導入案を承認しました。インドのPPHプログラムはまず日本の特許庁(以降「JPO」と呼びます)とIPOの間で、最初は3年という期間で開始されました。さらに、IPO・JPO間の特許審査ハイウェイを利用した早期審査依頼の申請者が従う手順に関する手順のガイドラインも公表されました。この二国間PPHパイロットプログラムには通常PPHとPPH MOTTINAがあります。 さらにIPOは インド特許総局(IPO)と日本の特許庁(JPO)間のPPHパイロットプログラムの正式手順ガイドラインも公表しており、 こちらからご覧いただけます。

IPOがPPHガイドラインChapter 5の下、Form5-1の受付を2020年3月9日から再開

インド特許総局(IPO)公式サイトで発表された通り 、2019年12月5日にPPHガイドラインChapter 5の下、IPO(IPOはOLE、JPOはOEE)でForm 5-1(PPH特許審査ハイウェイ向け情報)のの提出受付が開始されました。審査した依頼100件のうち56件がIPOによって認められ、申請者はForm 18Aによる早期審査申請が認められました。しかしPPHガイドラインに従って44件が非適用と判断されています。同様に、IPOは2020年3月9日からPPHガイドラインChapter 5の下、Form5-1の受付が再開しました。申請数は44件に制限されていたことをここで言及すべきでしょう。

IPOがPPHガイドラインChapter 5の下、Form5-1の受付を2020年8月10日から再開

最新情報 によると7 第二回目に受領した44件の審査の結果、ガイドラインに沿って35件がIPOに認められ、申請者はForm 18Aの早期審査の申請依頼が認められました。今回はPPHガイドラインに従ってまだ9件の申請に空きがあり、IPOは2020年8月10日からChapter 5のForm5-1の受付を再開します。

日印デジタル・パートナーシップ (IJDP) とスタートアップハブ8



この一環として、2018年5月の世耕経済産業大臣のインド訪問中に日印スタートアップイニシアティブの共同声明の署名が行われました、この声明の下、日本市場と潜在的な日本投資家に向けてインドのスタートアップ企業を選定するための初めてのスタートアップハブが、ジェトロによってバンガロアに設立されました。その後、両国のスタートアップエコシステムをつなぐSDG(サステナブルな開発目標)にフォーカスしたイノベーションのコラボレーションに関して(Invest India下の)Startup-IndiaとJapan Innovation Network (JIN)の間で2018年6月に覚書署名が行われました。Invest Indiaはスタートアップハブのオンラインポータルもローンチしています。


両国はPPHの導入が特許出願の所要時間の削減、係属の減少、さらに検索と特許出願審査の品質向上につながることを期待しています。 しかし、豊かな未来に向けた印日知的財産パートナーシップの本当の力を知ろうと、PPHの結果は厳しく監視されることになるでしょう。

Vikrant Rana

Managing Partner & Patent Attorney, S.S. Rana & Co.

Vikrant Rana is the managing partner of SS Rana, an intellectual property and corporate law firm in India. With his business understanding and experience of more than 24 years, Mr Rana has been providing practical legal advice to many Fortune 500 companies as well as grassroots innovators and start-ups on securing, protecting, enforcing and exploiting their IP assets in India and world over.

Mr Rana is a member of the Japan Intellectual Property Association (JIPA) and was invited by JIPA's Tokyo office in June 2019, to speak on IP rights in India where he highlighted strategies for faster prosecution of IP applications in India and also gave insights into various complex IP issues and developments in India. He was also invited by the Confederation of Indian Industries to be a part of their delegation to visit Japan.

S.S. Rana & Co. マネージングパートナー&特許弁護士

Vikrant Ranaは、インド最高クラスの知的財産および法人法の法律事務所S.S. Rana & Co.のマネージングパートナーです。24年以上のビジネスの知識と経験で、Vikrantは数多くのFortune 500企業だけでなく、草の根的なイノベーターやスタートアップ企業に対しても、インドや世界中での知的財産の取得・保護・施行・活用に関して実践的な法的アドバイスを行っています。


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